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A sedimentary rock consisting primarily of calcium carbonate, often in the form of the minerals calcite or aragonite, and sometimes with magnesium carbonate in the form of dolomite. Minor amounts of silica, feldspar, pyrite, and clay may also be present. Limestone can occur in many colors but is usually white, gray, or black. It forms either through the accumulation and compaction of fossil shells or other calcium-carbonate based marine organisms, such as coral, or through the chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate out of sea water: used as a building stone and in the manufacture of cement, lime, etc.


A medium-grained sedimentary rock consisting of fine to coarse sand-sized grains that have been either compacted or cemented together by a material such as silica, iron oxide, or calcium carbonate. Although sandstone usually consists primarily of quartz, it can also consist of other minerals, and it can vary in color from yellow or red to gray or brown: used widely in building.

Both the Limestone and the sandstone fall into the "Medium-Density" category as defined by the ASTM definitions.
Stone Stats: (medium-density as defined by ASTM):
Abrasion Resistance, min. hardness: 10
Max. Absorption Rate (%): 7.5
Min. Density (pcf): 135
Compressive Strength (psi): 4,000
Modulus of Rupture (psi): 1,000 (min)

Stone Cladding:

Stone cladding is a thin layer of stone applied to a building or other structure made of a material other than stone. Stone cladding is sometimes applied to concrete and steel buildings as part of their original architectural design.

Stone cladding products are often fitted to light weight substrates to reduce the material cost of construction. A lightweight substrate would typically be a timber stud frame, it would then have a waterproof barrier attached, then fiber cement sheet, expanded metal mesh, a mortar scratch coat, and then using a mortar mix, the stone cladding would be adhered to the wall. In the US, a typical installation on a lightweight substrate would use ply bracing as an alternative to fiber cement sheet. Stone Cladding can be fitted to existing masonry units such as brick and CMU's.

Stone cladding is accomplished by a natural stone that has been quarried and then cut into thin pieces to reduce weight. This is referred to asThin Veneer stone. Thin veneer stone has the facial texture, the height and lengths that a full grade veneer would have. Thin veneer are typically 1/2" to 1 1/2" in depth. This significantly reduces the weight especially where anchors and supporting angle Irons are not feasible.